Non-Linear Economies of Scale in Food Production: The Case of Norwegian Bakeries

International Journal of Applied Economics, Finance and Accounting
ISSN 2577-767X Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 182-193. 2022
DOI: 10.33094/ijaefa.v14i2.695 © 2022 by the authors; licensee Online Academic Press, USA

The bakery industry has a rich history. Its modern forms involve both manufacturing products and delivering them to customers. Both small bakers and large producers sell their products to the supermarket. The largest bakeries export a wide variety of baked foods. The sector is a large employer and it has been thoroughly studied internationally. However, only a small number of studies have analysed the baked goods sector, often due to the lack of categorization of bakeries in the data. In this article, we use public statistics on Norwegian bakeries to study their economies of scale. The profitability of large bakeries persistently exceeds the average rate. New bakeries are equally likely to succeed or fail in the long run. Many new bakeries enter the market as a result of tough competition and a long period of high sector probability but it is difficult for them to survive. Those that must leave the market are mostly new entrants. Despite their difficulties, small and medium-sized bakeries are more profitable than new start-up businesses. We investigate the nonlinear relationship between size and profitability as well as between and within bakeries.

The Long-Run Equilibrium of Industry Population and Bottom Lines: Analysing the Near-Perfect Restaurant Industry

Journal of Applied Business and Economics Vol. 24(3) 2022


The establishment and bankruptcy of businesses is a crucial aspect of the market economy. The market in
which restaurants compete is characterized by few barriers to entry, strong competition, low marginal rates
of profit, and high levels of bankruptcy. Using publicly available panel data of all Norwegian restaurants,
we examine the determinants of market levels of entry and exit. In theory, the driving force in the space of
market turnover is the marginal rate of profit in the industry. There is a strong link between the profit rates
in the sector and number of firms leaving and entry the marked.
Keywords: market dynamics, turnover, restaurants, entry, bankruptcy, exit, marginal rate of profit

The Impact of Take-home Open-book Examinations due to COVID-19 among Business Students. Do Gender, Age, and Academic Skills Matter?

E-ISSN: 2710-2122, P-ISSN: 2710-2114 2022: Vol 4, pp 28-43.
Interdisciplinary Journal of Education Research

Abstract: Due to COVID-19, numerous universities and colleges have been forced to arrange home-based exams in many countries. We know relatively little about what consequences this might have for the ranking of students based on qualifications in the various subjects. This is an important issue for administrators, educators, and others involved in planning the design of higher education. The
intention of this article is to get more insight into this issue. By analysing administrative data from a Norwegian Business School, we examined the impact of moving from traditional school exams to home-based exams in 2020 due to COVID-19. The chosen methodology is the comparison of means by using t-test and standard linear regression models. The results indicate a weaker link between high
school performance and achievements in business administration courses. Furthermore, home-based exams might disadvantage older students. This is useful knowledge in the judgement as to whether or not to introduce home-based exams as a permanent arrangement.

Keywords: COVID-19, Online exam, Home-based exam, Traditional in-class exam, Business
students, Grades, Performance, Gender, Age