Management Research and Practice, Volume 14, Issue 4, Dec.2022

For management education in the public sector, skills are needed in many fields. As a result, subjects such as economics and law have gained a more central position. In this study, we will investigate what attitudes students at college in Norway have to the two disciplines of management and organisational theory, and economics. We will use factor analysis and personality traits in the analysis. Students find economics almost as important as management subjects in relation to their careers, but they consider economics harder to understand and less pleasing to learn. Students’ attitudes also depend on
gender and personal characteristics.
Keywords: career, economics, management, personality traits, public sector


European Journal of Education Studies9(10) 2022


The exam is an important tool for learning and measuring students’ knowledge and competence. However, there are no standard answers as to how exams are best suited to ensure this. There is considerable variation in students’ preferences for different exam
types. In this study, the focus is on students’ attitudes towards the choice of exam type. This survey features management students from Norway, who study for a master’s degree in order to pursue a career in the public sector. The results show that students are
well motivated to learn, but they are sensitive to the choice of exam type. This affects effort, motivation, and expected success. There are different views on the types of exams that are perceived to be fair. The oral exam stands out in particular, as female students
have great anxiety in relation to this form of exam

Are Students’ Effort in Business Courses Related to the Choice of Exam

Leiv Opstad, NTNU Business School, Trondheim, Norway, p 21-28


The WEI International Academic Conference Proceedings
November 22-24, 2022,  Rome, Italy

The exam is an important tool to measure students’ skills. However, the choice of exam form also affects the way students acquire knowledge. In this study, the focus is on the link between the students’ study efforts and the choice of exam type. By asking students at a business school in Norway, we will identify factors that affect students’ efforts. As a research instrument, personality traits (the Big Five) are used. By applying a linear regression model, this research demonstrates that there is a close correlation between motivation and learning methods, as well as with study effort. The impact varies with the choice of exam form. Gender and personal characteristics also influence the students’ efforts to some extent, depending on the type of exam. This is useful knowledge in the evaluation of different forms of examination.

Keywords: Business school, Big Five, Assessments, Study effort, Gender, Learning approach

Does the weather influence where tourists want to stay in Norway?

Leiv Opstad, NTNU Business School, Trondheim, Norway
Robin Valenta, NTNU Business School, Trondheim, Norway
Gaute Hvidsten, NTNU Business School, Trondheim, Norway
Johannes Idso, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Sogndal, Norway

The purpose of this article is to determine if the weather affects the length of tourist stays at Norwegian campsites across different Norwegian regions. We use monthly data on visitors divided by counties and regions for the summer months over a five-year period to accompany the data on weather. We provide insight on the weather through figures, while the article’s research question is answered with linear regression models. The conclusion is that there is a significant correlation between temperature and the length of time guests spend in a particular geographical area. But the impact is greatest for those who spend the night in tents and caravans. This analysis failed to prove any correlation between temperature and length of stay. The paper does not investigate other factors that may affect the duration of tourists’ stay at a campsite

Non-Linear Economies of Scale in Food Production: The Case of Norwegian Bakeries

International Journal of Applied Economics, Finance and Accounting
ISSN 2577-767X Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 182-193. 2022
DOI: 10.33094/ijaefa.v14i2.695 © 2022 by the authors; licensee Online Academic Press, USA

The bakery industry has a rich history. Its modern forms involve both manufacturing products and delivering them to customers. Both small bakers and large producers sell their products to the supermarket. The largest bakeries export a wide variety of baked foods. The sector is a large employer and it has been thoroughly studied internationally. However, only a small number of studies have analysed the baked goods sector, often due to the lack of categorization of bakeries in the data. In this article, we use public statistics on Norwegian bakeries to study their economies of scale. The profitability of large bakeries persistently exceeds the average rate. New bakeries are equally likely to succeed or fail in the long run. Many new bakeries enter the market as a result of tough competition and a long period of high sector probability but it is difficult for them to survive. Those that must leave the market are mostly new entrants. Despite their difficulties, small and medium-sized bakeries are more profitable than new start-up businesses. We investigate the nonlinear relationship between size and profitability as well as between and within bakeries.

The Long-Run Equilibrium of Industry Population and Bottom Lines: Analysing the Near-Perfect Restaurant Industry

Journal of Applied Business and Economics Vol. 24(3) 2022


The establishment and bankruptcy of businesses is a crucial aspect of the market economy. The market in
which restaurants compete is characterized by few barriers to entry, strong competition, low marginal rates
of profit, and high levels of bankruptcy. Using publicly available panel data of all Norwegian restaurants,
we examine the determinants of market levels of entry and exit. In theory, the driving force in the space of
market turnover is the marginal rate of profit in the industry. There is a strong link between the profit rates
in the sector and number of firms leaving and entry the marked.
Keywords: market dynamics, turnover, restaurants, entry, bankruptcy, exit, marginal rate of profit

The Impact of Take-home Open-book Examinations due to COVID-19 among Business Students. Do Gender, Age, and Academic Skills Matter?

E-ISSN: 2710-2122, P-ISSN: 2710-2114 2022: Vol 4, pp 28-43.
Interdisciplinary Journal of Education Research

Abstract: Due to COVID-19, numerous universities and colleges have been forced to arrange home-based exams in many countries. We know relatively little about what consequences this might have for the ranking of students based on qualifications in the various subjects. This is an important issue for administrators, educators, and others involved in planning the design of higher education. The
intention of this article is to get more insight into this issue. By analysing administrative data from a Norwegian Business School, we examined the impact of moving from traditional school exams to home-based exams in 2020 due to COVID-19. The chosen methodology is the comparison of means by using t-test and standard linear regression models. The results indicate a weaker link between high
school performance and achievements in business administration courses. Furthermore, home-based exams might disadvantage older students. This is useful knowledge in the judgement as to whether or not to introduce home-based exams as a permanent arrangement.

Keywords: COVID-19, Online exam, Home-based exam, Traditional in-class exam, Business
students, Grades, Performance, Gender, Age


Business Education & Accreditation
Vol. 14, No. 1, 2022, pp. 1-15
ISSN: 1944-5903 (print)
ISSN: 2157-0809 (online)

Statistical skills are strongly linked success in business studies, especially in analyzing risk and in the
financial sciences. Therefore, it is useful to acquire more knowledge about factors that can explain the
grades achieved in Business Statistics. The objective of this study is to identify variables that are related to
performance in Business Statistics among a cohort of business school students in Norway. By using linear
regression models, this study tries to identify the relationship between achievement in Business Statistics
and several independent variables, including gender, grade point average (GPA) from high school,
mathematical background, Big Five personality traits, and attitudes towards statistics (SATS-36). Only
attitudes towards statistics were significantly associated with the performance. There is a positive
correlation between success in Business Statistics and the two Cognitive Competence and Effort (from
SATS-36) dimensions. This is useful knowledge to ensure good results in Business Statistics.

JEL: A20, A22, M20
KEYWORDS: Gender, Big Five, Attitudes Towards Statistics, Mathematical Skills,
Regression Model, Success in Business Statistics, Norway, Business School

Did Home-Based Exams during COVID-19
Affect Student Ranking? A Case from a
Business School

Opstad, L., & Pettersen, I. (2022). Did Home-Based Exams during COVID-19 Affect Student
Ranking? A Case from a Business School. Educational Process: International Journal, 11(2): 96-113. DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2022.112.5


Background/purpose – Home-based exams were introduced during COVID-19 with an open-book format and limited control over dishonest student behavior. Such exams were used in lieu of traditional, closed-book school-based exams as a necessity due to the pandemic. This article investigates whether or not students’ grades from home-based assessment exams differed from the grades they achieved in traditional school-based exams.

Materials/methods – Using administrative data from 2017 to 2020 from a business school in Norway, a quantitative approach that compared differences, correlation analysis, and regression models was applied in the study.

Results – By switching from school-based to home-based exams, students’ academic success during their second year of business school showed a smaller association with students’ outcomes from their first year. One interpretation is that skilled students achieved weaker performance in home-based exams.

Conclusion – Home-based exams without any control mechanisms appear to result in different student rankings. This knowledge may be useful for employers looking to hire applicants who graduated during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: COVID-19, home-based exam, business students, students’ performance

Is First-Year Grade Point Average (GPA) A Good Predictor Of Success In Business Courses?

Leiv Opstad Professor,
Norwegian University of Science and Technology Trondheim, p 53-60

A key requirement within higher education is to identify which factors influence academic success. The current paper investigates students’ performance at a business school in Scandinavia. This study includes around 200 students. By using a linear regression model, we analyse the impact of different explanatory variables. The results show that gender and age have little impact on grades achieved. Academic results from upper secondary school also have only a minor influence. The most important indicator of undergraduates’ performance for subjects in the second and third year is GPA (grade point average) from the first year. But it depends on the kind of business course. There is a clear link between performance in a subject during the first year and later outcomes in the same field.

Keywords: GPA, undergraduates, business school, success, regression model